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Accounting of Grants for NGOs

Do you know how Grant is presented in your NGOs Financial Statements? As REVENUE or as LIABILITY ? This is one of the crucial question regarding accounting of Grants for NGOs. Generally, we depend on the Chartered Accountants on how our Financial Statements are prepared and presented. Sometimes presentation of Financial Statements become misleading and serve no purpose.

Today we learn how to do accounting of grants for NGOs which is more appropriate in present days.

Introduction – Accounting of Grants for NGOs

There is no clarity Inida regarding how grants should be presented. We have Indian Accounting Standard 20 which mainly dealt with  accounting of Government Grants and not grants for specific projects from Funding Agencies. However, considering Indian Accounting Standards #20 and US Statement of Financial Accounting Standard #117, we can derive following three methods of presenting Grants in the Financial Statements.

Option A – Grants treated as Revenue

Here, we consider Grants Received as Revenue of the current year whether it is related to current year or for next years. Thus, when two years project is sanctioned and total grant received in the first year only, we treat full grant as income of first year. See below image to understand presentation in Financial Statements.

 

In this method, you can see above that unspent grant of Rs 40 clubbed in Income and Expenditure Account as “Excess of Income over Expenses” . Due to this, it becomes difficult to know what funds lying in the I/E Account. Check out the Balance Sheet where I/E Account show Rs. 50 which comprise of Unspent Grants and Other Income.

Option B – Grant treated as Liability

Here, it assumes that, grants and funds received for specific project, is the liability of organization and not Income. Thus whatever grant received, whether for current year or next years taken to Balance Sheet and considered as Liability. Expense from such grant then deducted from the liability and net amount shown in the Balance Sheet. Checkout below how Financial Statements look if we treat Grant as Liability.

In this method, Balance Sheet present correct financial position. However, Income and Expenditure does not show much revenue except income earned by NGOs like Non Specific Donations and Interest Income.

Option C – Best of the above Two

Due to limitations of both the above method, we should presented financial statements as per this hybrid method using best of both the above methods. In this method, we consider that much revenue for current year which actually spent during the year and remaining balance transfer to next year as “Unspent or Unutilized Grant”. Lets have a look, how the financial Statements presented under this method.

In this method, Income Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet showing correct information and in self explanatory manner.

Conclusion

In India, there is no such proforma available in any Act regarding presentation of Financial Statements of NGOs. Thus as per my opinion it is advisable to follow accounting of grants for ngos as per option C – Hybrid method, which is self explanatory and showing correct information.

Note – In all the above three methods, presentation of Receipts and Payment Accounts would not change.

For any questions or query hit the below comment section.

FCRA New Rules 2015

From 14th December 2015, FCRA new rules comes into force. Ministry of Home Affairs, FCRA department has issued this notification. The first and major impact of such notification is to file FCRA renewal form again. Read this blog for more details.

Here we are trying to understand the changes in Rule,2015 through some graphical presentations.

1. First Change is Change in Forms

FCRA_New_Rules_1_2015

Forms nomenclature and details has been change in New Rules 2015. Kindly go to this link and click on “Sample Forms”. You can download all the forms from there for your reference. However, filling of forms in paper format or offline mode is not allowed.

FCRA Dos and Don’ts

FCRA Dos and Don’ts

As a crucial Act, an organization should take utmost care regarding FCRA. However, many myths prevails regarding what should be “Dos” and “Donts” regarding FCRA. Ministry of Home Affairs have clearly issued advisory in regard to this. You can download PDF from here. We try to make it simple and in Graphical Format. Lets Start with “Donts”

1. Do Not Mix Foreign Contribution with Domestic Receipts

Dont's1

Our Interpretation*

  1. Bank accounts must be separate (obviously)
  2. Do not Transfer funds from FC Bank to NonFC (even Direct Bank Transfer)
  3. Books of Accounts must be separate.
  4. Keep Separate Cash Box (it shows good cash control system)

FC Grant Now exempt from Charity Contribution – Gujarat

Gujarat Government published in the Official Gazette on May 20, 2015 (Download it from here) regarding change in Gujarat Public Trust Act, 1950 and these rules may be called the “Bombay Public Trust (Gujarat) (Amendments) Rules, 2015. One of the major welcome change is to consider Foreign Grant as deduction for calculation of Charity Contribution.

Earlier, only local contribution/grants and government grants were allowed to deduct from amount liable to contribution. No such provision related to Foreign Grants deduction was there, because of old act since 1950 and never amended thereafter.

Change in Balance Sheet and Income Expenditure format –

Schedule VIII related to Balance Sheet and major change is to show balance in FCRA Bank account separately. Have a look –

charitybS

Schedule IX is related to Income and Expenditure Account  and major change is to show Grants in Foreign Money  separately. Have a look –

charityIE

Change in Schedule IX-C – Statement showing amount Liable to Contribution –

Major relief comes here, where it is notified in this revised schedule of IX-C, that Grant and Donation under FCRA is not chargeable to contribution under section 58 and rule 32. Lets have a look –

charity9C

From when it is applicable –

As no date specified in the official gazette, we interpret that any Statements prepared after May 20, 2015 (date of notification) must be prepared as per this new format.

Amendments in FCRA Rule 2015 (draft)

After a circular regarding DSC of chief functionary, FCRA Department has issued a circular on 17th June 2015, (Download from here)asking for suggestion on amendments to Foreign Contribution Regulation Rules, 2011 by Foreign Contribution Regulation Rules (2015).

THIS IS A DRAFT AMENDMENTS and suggestions or comments asked from public and other stakeholders on or before 1st July, 2015.

We are in the process of analyzing and studying all the changes in the amendments and it impacts. Meanwhile let us see important changes which are suggested in the amendments of FC Rules :

Website will become mandatory

After this amendments, every NGOs with FC registration will have to build a website. No, it is not declared directly as mandatory. But changes made to Rule 13(1) stating that every registered organization has to publish audited Income Expenditure, Receipt Payments and Balance Sheet of Foreign contribution to its website before 31st December of every year. Such website has to be declared as official website and is to be informed to FCRA department.

Have to publish Foreign Receipt within 7 days

Yes, you have to publish to your official website, every foreign receipts within seven days of receipts. Refer rule 13(B) of such draft amendments.

Bank will have to report in 48 hours

Bank will have to report of FCRA department within 48 hours of any transactions in respect of receipt and utilization of any foreign contribution. Refer rule 16 (2) of such draft amendments.

Online Procedures

We have already write a blog stating how FCRA department is eager to implement all the online procedure. Here in this amendments it is clearly mention that now onwards all the forms will be filled online through DSC and also you can make payment through online payment gateway.

Change in Forms

All the form numbers will be changed e.g. Annual Return Form FC-6 now become FC-4. Not only form numbers, but details and information given in the forms will also changed. We will soon post a blog showing what changes will be made in Forms.

You can give Suggestions

FCRA department has asked for suggestions on the above mentioned amendments from public. You can give your suggestions by email to Mr. A.K. Dhyani, Under Secretary to the Government of India on ak.dhyani@nic.in.

Alternatively you can give your suggestion in the comment box below. We will compile all the suggestions and email to the authority.

Note – This amendments are draft and not final. This will be implemented only after FCRA Rule, 2015 published in the Official Gazzette.

NGO Regulatory Authority in india

In India, Non Government Organization or Non Profit Organization can be registered under any legal entity. Mainly following entities are prevails in India –

  • Proprietary Concern
  • Partnership Firm
  • HUF
  • Company
  • Association of Persons, which includes – Trust, Society, Union, Institute etc…

NGO Regulatory Authority in India

For NGO or NPO, mainly three separate entity status possible, either registered as company, trust or society. These three have their own benefit and disadvantages. Different legal status regulated by different legal acts and laws in India. Lets look at the various NGO regulatory authority in India :

 Legal Status Act Aply Remarks
Company NGO can be registered as company under Section 8 of The Companies Act, 2013 Earlier it was Section 25 of The Companies Act, 1956
Trust NGO can be registered as trust under Indian Trust Act, 1882 However, every state has its own Trust Act. Like in Maharshtra and Gujarat, The Bombay Public Trust Act, 1950
Society NGO can be registered as Society under The Societies Registration  Act, 1860 However, every state has its own Act. Like in Gujarat, The Gujarat Co-operative Societies Act, 1962

Summary

Once NGO is registered under any of the above statute, there are number of other registration has to be taken depending on the need and requirements, e.g Sec 12A exemption, 80G certificate, FCRA registration, 35AC exemption registration and so forth.

Hope this will help you in your NGO, if you have any question, you can ask here or chat with us. Also your comments are welcome on the above subjects.

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